Course Descriptions

PIO. 201: General principles of Physiology:

Introduction and history of physiology, cells and organelles, transport across cell membranes, homeostasis and control system, compartments, electrolytes. Body fluids, blood and its composition, erythropoiesis, haemostasis, antigenicity, immunity and reticuloendothelia system. Blood grouping and transfusion, Haematological indices and their measurements.

PIO 202.   Principles of Human Nutrition

The course emphasizes basic nutritional science, diet and its adequacy; food nutrients and their metabolism, application of nutrition principle to the needs of children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women.  Nutrient requirements in relation to physical activity and aging; Diet and disease, obesity; Under-nutrition and starvation.

PIO 211.    Blood.

Composition and functions of blood, Blood volume measurement, Haemopoesis Haemostasis, Blood groups, blood transfusion and blood banking, Iron metabolism, Basic immunology and abnormal haemoglobins

PIO 222. Respiratory Physiology

Functions of the respiratory tract; Mechanics of respiration; Oxygen and carbon dioxide transportation and exchange. Control of respiration.  Artificial respiration.  Metabolic rate; Acclimatization to high altitude; Decompression Sickness.

PIO 262. Gastrointestinal & Biliary Physiology 1

Digestive secretions – their composition, function and control mechanism of the alimentary canal.

PIO 291. Neurophysiology I: Excitable tissues.

General arrangements of the nervous system.  Nerves, generation and conduction of impulses, Synapses and synaptic transmission.  Peripheral nervous system – the reflex arc and general properties of reflexes, Receptors, Muscle: structure, excitation, theories of contraction.

PIO 281: Practical Physiology I

Students are exposed to practical procedures designed to enhance the understanding of the various concepts taught in PIO 211; Basic laboratory management staff & materials). Experimental designed, Report writing. Types & preparation of physiological solutions.

PIO 282: Practical Physiology II

Students are exposed to practical procedures designed to enhance the understanding of the various concepts taught in PIO 221,PIO 222, & PIO 224

PIO 302: Introduction to experimental surgery

Common non-surgical procedures required in preparation of animals for in-vivo experiments. Ovariectomy (bilateral, unilateral) Orchiectomy, etc. Intravenous cannulation systems and procedures in small laboratory animals; sacrificial surgical procedures for organ & tissue explantation for in-vitro experiments. Small animal anaesthesia and analgesia, aseptic procedures in laboratory animal surgery.

Induced animal models of human pathophysiological conditions (selected topics)

PIO 332. Cardiovascular Physiology 1

Heart electro-physiology.  Properties of cardiac muscle.  Cardiac cycle; Cardiac output – measurement and control.  Heamodynamics.  Cardiovascular changes in exercise and haemorrhage.

PIO 341    Body fluid and renal Physiology I

Fluid compartments of the body.  Functions of the kidney, Mechanism of thirst, Control of water and electrolytes in the body.  Acid-base regulation.

PIO 342. Body fluid and renal Physiology II

Macroscopic, microscopic and ultra structure of the kidney.  Elements of renal functions.  Glomerular filtration, clearance, tabular reabsorption and secretion.  Renal blood flow.  Body fluid and electrolyte balance.  Buffer mechanism and pH regulation.

PIO 351. Endocrinology 1

Functions and control of the secretions of the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary and adrenal gland.  Abnormalities of endocrine function; Normal integration in the control of calcium and glucose metabolism.  The kidney as an endocrine gland.

PIO 352.   Endocrinology II

Nature of Hypothalamo-hypophyseal relationship.  Synthesis, storage and release of the neurohypophyseal hormones.  Functions of the hypothalamus to include regulation of body temperature, thirst, appetite and food intake; regulation of adenohypophyseal function and higher autonomic control.

PIO 361.   Gastrointestinal & biliary Physiology II

Gastric acid secretagogues: Histamine and gastrin metabolism. Gastrointestinal motility Basic experimental techniques in gastrointestinal physiology.

PIO 371.   Reproductive Physiology

Gametogenesis & fertilization; structures of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origins and embryogenesis of different organs.  Medical genetics.  Sex hormones.  Oestrous and menstrual cycles.  Physiology of pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Foetal and neonatal circulation and respiration.

PIO 381: Practical Physiology III

Students are exposed to practical procedures designed to enhance the understating of the concepts taught in reproductive physiology, renal & body fluid physiology, Gastrointestinal physiology.

PIO 382: Practical Physiology IV

Students are exposed to practical procedures designed to enhance the understanding of the concepts taught in neurophysiology (including special senses & muscles) CVS, Endocrinology, Environmental & metabolic experiments measurements of the physiological responses to gradations of exercise.

PIO 391. The Peripheral Nervous System

Components of the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral regulation of visceral functions. The adrenal medulla.

PIO 392. Special Senses

Vision, Hearing, Taste And Smell.

PIO 482. Animal Experimentation and Ethics of Basic Medical Practice.

Handling of Laboratory animals (including in vivo and in vitro preparations). The animal house. International regulations/jurisprudence in experimental Physiology. Choice of animals and / or isolated tissues.  Introduction to laboratory methods & design in physiological experimentation.  Biological assay techniques. Interpretation and statistical analysis of results.

PIO 481: General laboratory practice in clinical Physiology.

The clinical Physiology laboratory. Laboratory demonstrations of some routine diagnostic procedures in clinical physiology- recording & interpretation of abnormal ECGs; interpretation of abnormal EMG & EEG; Assessment of pulmonary functions; etc.  Clinical posting (6 weeks) in: cardiovascular unit, Renal Unit, Pulmonary unit, Blood bank and Endocrine unit. Students are expected to acquire skills of the routine procedures for assessment of the normal physiological functions & the pathophysiological indexes using available facilities in these units. There should be end-of-posting assessment which carries not less than 30% of the total mark for the course. Log book of the posting must be maintained.

PIO 431. Cardiovascular Physiology II

Further consideration of the heart as a pump.  Regional circulations: coronary, pulmonary, cerebral, cutaneous muscles, splanchnic, and renal. Their measurements, special features and control.  Auto-regulatory mechanisms in the heart and peripheral circulation

PIO 452. Advanced Endocrinology.

Further considerations of the synthesis, storage, release and functions of hormones.  Extraction and purification of hormones; Mechanisms of hormone actions; Methods in hormones research.  A comparative study of hormones particularly as exemplified by vasopressin, thyroxine and gastrin.

PIO 402. Environmental Physiology

Comparative Physiology of different mammals and non-mammal vertebrate species.  Human and animal physiological responses and adaptation to extreme conditions of heat, cold, altitude, pressure and gravity. Effects of environmental pollution on physiological functions. Circadian rhythms.  Animal senses.

 PIO 491.     Introduction to Central Nervous System.

The human brain – brain stem, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebella. Cerebrospinal fluid and the blood/brain barrier.  Electrophysiology of the cerebral cortex; the electroencephalogram, alertness and sleep.  Postural regulation and postural reflexes. Pain